To prevent and stop bleeding, drugs that increase blood clotting (hemostatics) are used. Hemostatic agents are represented by drugs of different groups and differ in their mechanism of action.
Locally, to stop capillary and parenchymal bleeding, Thrombin (a preparation of natural thrombin) and other local hemostatics (hemostatic sponge with amben, hemostatic collagen sponge, etc.) are used, which have not only hemostatic, but also antiseptic effect, contributing to tissue regeneration and wound healing.
Hemostatics of general (systemic) action include vitamin K and its homologues, sodium menadione bisulfite, etc. Vitamin K is called antihemorrhagic or coagulation vitamin, because it participates in the biosynthesis of the prothrombin complex (prothrombin and factors VII, IX and X) and promotes normal blood clotting. With a deficiency of vitamin K in the body, hemorrhagic phenomena develop.
To normalize blood coagulation in patients with hemophilia, as well as in hemostasis disorders caused by circulating inhibitors of blood coagulation factors, special preparations are used containing various coagulation factors (antihemophilic factor VIII, etc.). In some cases, extracts and infusions from plant materials (nettle leaves, yarrow herb, shepherd’s purse, water pepper, etc.) are also used to reduce bleeding.
Protamine sulfate is a specific heparin antagonist that helps to normalize blood clotting in case of an overdose. Its mechanism of action is associated with the formation of complexes with heparin.
Below is a list of coagulants (including blood coagulation factors), hemostatics:
- Clotting factor VIII ()
- Clotting factor IX ()
- Octocog alpha
- Nonakog alpha
- Menadione sodium bisulfite
- Von Willebrand factor ()
- Pepper water herb (Herba Polygoni hydropiperis)
- Knotweed bird grass (Herba Polygoni avicularis)
- Iron polyacrylate (Ferri polyacrylas)
- Eptacog alpha (activated)
- Clotting factors II, VII, IX and X in combination [Prothrombin complex] ()
- Nettle leaves (Folia urticae)
- Sodium alginate (Natrii alginas)
- Moroktokog alpha
- Shepherd’s purse herb (Herba bursae pastoris)
- Protamine sulfate
- Yarrow herb (Herba Achilleae millefolii)
- Clotting factor VII ()
- Anti-inhibitor Coagulant Complex