Hypoglycemic synthetic and others

Hypoglycemic, or antidiabetic drugs – drugs that lower blood glucose levels and are used to treat diabetes.
Along with insulin, the preparations of which are suitable only for parenteral use, there are a number of synthetic compounds that have a hypoglycemic effect and are effective when taken orally. These drugs are mainly used in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Oral hypoglycemic (hypoglycemic) drugs can be classified as follows:
sulfonylurea derivatives (glibenclamide, glyvidone, gliclazide, glimepiride, glipizide, chlorpropamide);
meglitinides (nateglinide, repaglinide);
biguanides (buformin, metformin, phenformin);
thiazolidinediones (pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, ciglitazone, englitazone, troglitazone);
alpha glucosidase inhibitors (acarbose, miglitol);
– incretin mimetics.
The hypoglycemic properties of sulfonylurea derivatives were discovered by chance. The ability of compounds of this group to have a hypoglycemic effect was discovered in the 50s, when a decrease in blood glucose was noted in patients receiving antibacterial sulfa drugs for the treatment of infectious diseases. In this regard, the search for sulfonamide derivatives with a pronounced hypoglycemic effect began in the 50s. the synthesis of the first sulfonylurea derivatives, which could be used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, was carried out. The first such drugs were carbutamide (Germany, 1955) and tolbutamide (USA, 1956). In the early 50s. these sulfonylurea derivatives began to be used in clinical practice. In the 60s and 70s. the second generation sulfonylurea preparations appeared. The first representative of the second generation sulfonylurea preparations – glibenclamide – began to be used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in 1969, in 1970 they began to use glibornuride, since 1972 – glipizide. Gliclazide and Gliquidone appeared almost simultaneously.
In 1997, repaglinide (meglitinide group) was approved for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.