Immunoglobulins are human (animal) proteins that are carriers of antibody activity and are present in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, lymph nodes, spleen, saliva and other tissues. They are synthesized in lymphoid cells, contain carbohydrate groups and can be considered as glycoproteins. In terms of electrophoretic mobility, immunoglobulins are mainly gamma globulins and beta2 globulins. The biological role of immunoglobulins in the body is associated with participation in the processes of immunity. Their protective function is due to the ability to specifically interact with antigens.
Immunoglobulins (gamma globulins) are purified and concentrated preparations of the gamma globulin fraction of serum proteins containing high titers of antibodies. The release of ballast whey proteins helps to reduce toxicity and provides a quick response and strong binding to antigens. The use of gamma globulins reduces the number of allergic reactions and complications arising from the administration of heterologous sera. Modern technology for the production of human immunoglobulin guarantees the death of the infectious hepatitis virus. The main immunoglobulin in gamma globulin preparations is IgG. Serums and gamma globulins are injected into the body in various ways: subcutaneously, intramuscularly, intravenously. Introduction into the spinal canal is also possible. Passive immunity occurs after a few hours and lasts up to two weeks.
Homologous human sera or gamma globulins do not cause anaphylactic reactions and are administered once. Human gamma globulin for measles prevention is injected intramuscularly in an amount of 1.5-3 ml.
An important condition for the effective use of sera and gamma globulins for the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases is their appointment as early as possible from the moment of illness or infection.
Below is a list of immunoglobulins:
- Human immunoglobulin against hepatitis B (Immunoglobulinum contra hepatitidem B)
- Immunoglobulin human normal (Immunoglobulinum humanum normale)
- Immune globulin human antirhesus Rho [D]
- Immunoglobulin antirabicum (Immunoglobulinum antirabicum)
- Immunoglobulin antitetanus (Immunoglobulinum antitetanicum humanum)
- Immunoglobulin antistaphylococcal (Immunoglobulinum antistaphylococcum humanum)
- Immunoglobulin against tick-borne encephalitis (Immunoglobulinum antiencephaliticum)
- Human immunoglobulin normal [IgG + IgA + IgM] (Immunoglobulinum humanum normale)
- Lactoglobulin against bacteria morbifica conditionalia and salmonella
- Lactoglobulin against coliproteum
- Immunoglobulin human anti-cytomegalovirus (Immunoglobulin cytomegalovirus)