The group of immunomodulators includes preparations of animal, microbial, yeast and synthetic origin, which have a specific ability to stimulate immune processes and activate immunocompetent cells (T- and B-lymphocytes) and additional factors of immunity (macrophages, etc.). An increase in the general resistance of the body can, to one degree or another, occur under the influence of a number of stimulating and tonic agents (caffeine, eleutherococcus, etc.), vitamins, dibazol, pyrimidine derivatives – methyluracil, pentoxil (accelerate regeneration, intensify leukopoiesis), derivatives of nucleic acids and biologics drugs that have received the general name – adaptogens. The ability of these drugs to increase the body’s resistance, accelerate the processes of regeneration has served as the basis for widespread use in complex therapy of sluggish regeneration processes, infectious, infectious-inflammatory and other diseases. In recent years, it has become especially important to study the immunological properties of endogenous compounds – lymphokines, interferons (the therapeutic efficacy of a number of drugs – Poludan, arbidol, etc. – is explained to a certain extent by the fact that they stimulate the formation of endogenous interferon, i.e., they are interferonogens).
The most important role in the functioning of cellular and humoral immunity is played by the thymus gland (thymus). In it, differentiation of stem cells into lymphocytes occurs, as well as the secretion of specific substances (hormones) that affect the development and maturation of certain cells of lymphoid tissue. A number of polypeptide hormones (thymosin, homeostatic thymus hormone, thymopoietin I and II, thymic humoral factor) and steroidal (thymosterol) structure have been isolated from the thymus gland. A number of extractive preparations have been obtained (Timalin, Taktivin, Timoptin, Vilozen), which are used as immunostimulants; they all contain the above hormones of the thymus gland (including alpha-thymosin) and are largely similar to each other in action. The drug B-activin was obtained from another organ of the immune system – bone marrow. Synthetic immunostimulants include levamisole, a number of peptide immunostimulants – alpha-glutamyl-tryptophan (Thymogen), etc.
Below is a list of immunomodulators:
- Polysaccharides of Solanum tuberosum shoots ()