Neurotropic drugs are a wide group of drugs that have an effect on the nervous system: central and peripheral. They can inhibit or stimulate the transmission of nervous excitement in various parts of the (central) nervous system, decrease or increase the sensitivity of nerve endings in peripheral nerves, affect different types of synapse receptors.
Drugs with a predominant effect on the central nervous system include analgesics, anesthetic, antiepileptic and other drugs that affect various neurotransmitter systems of the central nervous system. Among the central neurotropic drugs are drugs that affect the human psyche. Psychotropic drugs include antipsychotics, anxiolytics, antidepressants, etc.
Medicines with a predominant effect on the peripheral nervous system are subdivided into those affecting the afferent and efferent nervous system. The afferent nervous system includes the endings of the sensory nerves and afferent conductors. Means acting on the afferent part of the peripheral nervous system are local anesthetics, astringents, enveloping, adsorbing, etc.
The efferent part of the peripheral nervous system includes nerve conductors that leave the central nervous system and go to skeletal muscles (somatic nerves) and internal organs (autonomic nerves). Autonomic innervation, in turn, is subdivided into sympathetic and parasympathetic. The impulse from the endings of the autonomic and somatic nerves is transmitted to the executive organs in the synapses with the help of mediators. Depending on the type of mediator, impulse transmission is defined as cholinergic, noradrenergic, etc. Accordingly, drugs form groups of cholinergic (cholinomimetics, anticholinergics, etc.) and adrenergic (sympatholytics, adrenergic blockers and adrenomimetics, etc.) drugs. Agents affecting synaptic transmission in the efferent nervous system are very important in medical practice.