Vaccines, sera, phages and toxoids

Many years have passed since, trying to protect themselves from smallpox, the Chinese began to put dried smallpox scabs into their nostrils, and the Indians began to rub them into the skin incisions. Only E. Jenner (empirically) and L. Pasteur (scientifically) developed the foundations for the creation and use of protective vaccinations from living microbes. The first in 1880-1885. L. Pasteur received vaccines against chicken cholera, anthrax and rabies. Vaccines are biological products for creating immunity in people to infectious diseases. Corpuscular vaccines contain attenuated or killed microbes (virions), non-corpuscular ones contain the products of their chemical breakdown (chemical vaccines), neutralized bacterial exotoxins or poisons (toxoids). Vaccines differ in the number of antigens included in their composition: monovaccines and polyvaccines (associated). According to the species composition, vaccines can be bacterial, viral, rickettsial.
Live vaccines contain weakened bacteria (brucellosis, tularemia, plague, anti-ulcer, tuberculosis) or viruses (against smallpox, yellow fever, rabies, poliomyelitis, influenza, measles, mumps). Since mutant strains are able to reproduce in a vaccinated organism and cause a short-term and unexpressed vaccine infection, live vaccines (mainly monovaccines) are more immunogenic, create high-intensity immunity that lasts for a long time. Thus, smallpox and tularemia vaccines provide 5–7 years of immunity, and influenza immunity – 6–8 months. Unfortunately, they also have a number of disadvantages: high reactogenicity, allergenicity, the ability to cause severe complications, incl. generalization of the vaccine process.