Vitamins and vitamin-like

Vitamins are irreplaceable elements necessary for the growth, development and life of a person. Most vitamins in the body are not synthesized, their source is usually the external environment (food products of plant and animal origin, microorganisms – normal inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract). Lack of vitamins in the body (vitamin deficiency) may be the result of a low content of vitamins in food, a violation of their absorption (with pathological changes in the digestive tract). An increased need for vitamins occurs during a period of intensive growth, in old age, during pregnancy, breastfeeding, hard physical labor, and during intense sports. In such cases, it is necessary to use vitamin preparations – medicines, the active principle of which are vitamins or their more active analogues (coenzymes). Vitamin preparations are obtained from natural raw materials or synthetically. Vitamins are divided into two groups – water-soluble and fat-soluble.
Water-soluble vitamins include: ascorbic acid (vitamin C), B vitamins – thiamine (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), pyridoxine (vitamin B6), nicotinic acid (vitamin PP), cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12), bioflavonoids (vitamin P), folic acid (vitamin B, vitamin B9), pantothenic (vitamin B5) and pangamic (vitamin B15) acids.
Vitamin B1 (thiamine) is found in yeast, germs and shells of wheat, oats, buckwheat, as well as in bread made from flour. The daily requirement of an adult for vitamin B1 is 1.5–2 mg. Preparations of the vitamin B1 group are not only specific “antihypovitaminosis” agents. They actively affect various functions of the body, interfering with metabolism and neuro-reflex regulation, and influence the conduction of nervous excitation in cholinergic synapses. The active (coenzyme) form of vitamin B1 is its phosphorylated derivative, thiamine diphosphate (cocarboxylase), which participates in decarboxylation reactions as a prosthetic part of decarboxylases and some other enzymes that play an important role in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, especially in nervous and muscle tissues. For medical purposes, drugs containing synthetic thiamine in the form of bromide or chloride, cocarboxylase, etc. are used. In addition to the prophylactic and therapeutic effect with appropriate hypo- and avitaminosis (“beriberi”), indications for the use of vitamin B1 are neuritis, radiculitis, neuralgia, peripheral paralysis. Cocarboxylase is widely used in cardiology. In dermatological practice, vitamin B1 is prescribed for dermatoses of neurogenic origin, itching of various etiologies, pyoderma, eczema, psoriasis.