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Lithium citrate Information
The circulation of sodium impacts through muscle and nerve cells in the body. Sodium affects excitation or mania.Lithium is used to treat the manic episodes of manic depression. Manic symptoms include rushed speech, reduced need for sleep, poor judgment, aggression, and anger. Lithium also helps to prevent or decrease the seriousness of episodes.Lithium may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
The exact mechanism of action of Li as a mood-stabilizing agent is currently unknown. It is likely that Li produces its effects by interacting with the transportation of monovalent or divalent cations in neurons. A growing number of scientists have arrived at the conclusion that the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate is the key element in understanding how lithium works. Lithium has been shown to change the inward and outward currents of glutamate receptors (especially GluR3), with no change in reversal potential. Lithium was found to exert a dual effect on glutamate receptors, acting to keep the amount of glutamate active between tissues at a secure, healthful level, neither too much nor too small. It is postulated that too much glutamate in the space between nerves triggers mania, and also small, depression. Another mechanism by which lithium might help to modulate mood comprise the non-competitive inhibition of an enzyme called inositol monophosphatase. Alternately lithium’s actions may be improved via the deactivation of this GSK-3B enzyme. The regulation of GSK-3B by lithium can affect the circadian clock. GSK-3 is known for phosphorylating and thus inactivating glycogen synthase. GSK-3B has also been implicated in the control of cellular response to damaged DNA. GSK-3 normally phosphorylates beta catenin, which leads to beta catenin degratation. When GSK-3 is inhibited, beta catenin increases and transgenic mice with overexpression of beta catenin express similar behaviour to mice treated with lithium. These results indicate that increase of beta catenin might be a possible pathway for the therapeutic action of lithium.
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How to use lithium citrate
Follow all instructions. Your physician may sometimes change your dose to make certain you receive the best results. Don’t use this medicine in smaller or larger amounts or for longer than recommended. Don’t crush, chew, or split an extended-release tablet. Swallow it whole. Measure medication with the syringe supplied, or using a special dose-measuring spoon or medicine cup.
If you don’t own a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist. Taking lithium can make it much easier for you to become dehydrated, particularly if you have some nausea or nausea, if you are outside in the sun, or if you exercise vigorously or sweat more than normal. Dehydration can increase some of the negative effects of lithium. Call your doctor if you are sweating more than normal, or if you have are sick with a fever and vomiting or diarrhea.
You can become dehydrated while taking requirements. Don’t change your dose or medication program without your physician’s advice. Drink extra fluids every day to prevent dehydration. It can take up to 3 months until your symptoms improve. Continue using the medication as directed and tell your doctor if your symptoms do not start to improve after 1 week of therapy.
Should you need surgery, tell the physician ahead of time that you’re using lithium. You may require blood tests when using lithium ion. Keep the bottle tightly closed when not in use.
- increased urination
- fine hand tremor
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, , lead to elevated levels of lithium in the blood and decrease the kidney’s ability to get rid of lithium andside effects from lithium. Blood concentrations of lithium may have to be quantified for 4 to 7 days following an NSAID is inserted or ceased during lithium therapy. Sulindac and aspirin don’t appear to influence lithium concentrations. Diuretics should be used carefully in patients. Diuretics that behave in the distal renal tubule, , can increase blood levels of lithium.
Diuretics that behave in the proximal tubule, , are more inclined to decrease blood concentrations of lithium. Diuretics such as furosemide and bumetanide may have no affect on lithium levels in blood. ACE inhibitors, , can raise the possibility of developing lithium toxicity by increasing the amount of lithium that is discharged into the body in the tubules of the kidney and reducing the excretion of lithium.
When carbamazepine and lithium are used together, some patients may experience side effects, including nausea, lethargy, and tremor. Central nervous system side effects may occur when lithium is used with antidepressants, . Reactions may be led to by mixing lithium with monoamine oxidase inhibitor class of antidepressants or other medications that inhibit monoamine oxidase. Medications which cause the urine to become alkaline may increase.
This results in lower blood concentrations of lithium and reduces the effects of lithium. Such medications contain potassium citrate, potassium acetate, sodium bicarbonate, and sodium citrate. Caffeine seems to decrease serum lithium concentrations, and side effects of lithium have significantly increased in frequency. The two verapamil and diltiazem are reported to have variable impacts on lithium levels in blood. In some patients there can be decreased in and lithium blood glucose others lithium toxicity.
The likelihood of lithium toxicity may increase. Reactions have resulted when lithium is handled with phenothiazines, . Reactions have included delirium, seizures, encephalopathy, high fever or certain neurologic reactions that influence motion of muscles, known as symptoms. Lithium can lead to hypothyroidism or goiter. Using lithium with potassium iodide may increase the likelihood of this reaction.
The beta blocker with lithium’s usage may lead to a slow pulse and dizziness. Other beta blockers may interact with lithium and also be connected with a slow heart rate.